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Merovingians and Other Mysteries

Recently I began studying the history of Europe from roughly 300 BC to 500 AD. That is the period that effectively demarked the rise and fall of Roman influence in Europe. What I find particularly fascinating is the symbiotic relationship between the emergent Roman civilization and what appears to be a poorly documented, yet significant Celtic empire that preceded it. This Celtic empire appears to have been ruled from Britain, and there even appears to be evidence that the future Merovingian dynasty hailed directly from the same roots. While the Romans saw their European enemies as divided; from what I can see, it appears that their enemies were far more united than the Romans were led to believe.

My goal here is not to prove some conclusions I have arrived at that will challenege contemporary beliefs. My goal is merely to present some observations that I think are rather interesting and which raise some interesting questions. Truthfully, I do not know all the answers, and I suspect that no one does. I do hope though that, by providing the observations below, some truth will eventually be revealed that will give us a better understanding of the period in question.

  1. The -orix suffix was commonly attached to names of Celtic kings. Examples of such names include Ambiorix, Cingetorix and Cantiorix . The suffix was clearly related to the Latin word rex, meaning "king".
  2. The -orix suffix clearly evolved into the -oric and -eric suffixes. Examples of names incorporating the -oric and -eric suffixes include Theodoric and Childeric.
  3. The suffix -ovic and related suffixes appears to also be a variant of the -orix root. Note that the letters v and r are formed with similar handstrokes and have similar Olin meanings. It appears likely that names ending with -oric evolved into names ending with -ovic or vice versa. Examples of such names include Merovich (also spelled Merovech) and Chlodovech.
  4. Many names ending with -eric, -oric and -ovic actually appear to end with the letter t or d followed by the suffix.
  5. If one looks carefully, one can find dovic embedded in the name of the northern Welsh tribe known as the Ordovices.
  6. Another possible embeded form of dovic can be observed in the name Caradoc Vreichvras (i.e., cara docvric vras).
  7. There are several variants of ovic. One variant is ovich or ovech, as seen in Merovech and Chlodovech . Another variant of ovic is seen in the name clovis. One should note that the letters cl, when written close together, can be seen to form the letter d. So, once again, one finds the name clovis being related to the dovic pattern.
  8. The Roman emperor Constantius Chlorus (250-306 AD) once ruled over Britain. If one replaces the r in Chlorus with v, his name becomes Chlovus. In other words, the name Clovis appears to be either derived from Chorus or vice versa.
  9. The name Chlorus was said to mean "pale", and many explanations have been given why Constantius Chlorus was called "pale". However, if the name Clovis derived from dovic and dovic derived from oric (orix ), which means "king", it seems more reasonable to think that the name Chlorus derived from Clovis, rather than the other way around. Constantius Chlorus was, after all, a king of Britain, so the epithet "king" or "king of the land above" (as doric decodes in Olin) makes obvious sense.
  10. The first known king of the Salian Franks was supposedly named Chlodio or Clodio or Clodius. Interestingly, the name of the Roman Emperor Claudius was sometimes spelled Clodius. Constantius Chlorus was said to have lived several generations after Emperor Claudius just as the Frankish king Clovis was said to have lived several generations after Clodio.
  11. Constantius Chlorus was said to be the father of the Roman Emperor Constantine. The name Constantius is actually a Romanized form of Constantine. So the name Constantius Chlorus appears possibly to have originally meant "Constantine, king of the lands above".
  12. The Salian Franks were believed to have originated from Belgium. One of the shortest routes across the English Channel is from Dover to Dunkirk, which sits on the French/Belgian border.
  13. The German form of the name Merovech was Marwig. The name Marwig can be seen to be closely related to the name Meurig.
  14. In Ireland and Wales one will find variations of the name Meurig. One theory is that the name derives from mor ric , meaning "sea king". Another theory is that the name derived from mahr ric, meaning "great king".
  15. Long ago, kings did not rule vast territories. Rather they ruled somewhat small parcels of land. Each territory in England was known as a march (or mark in German). It seems reasonable to believe that the word march evolved from the name Meurig, meaning "great king". In fact, the word march can be seen as marc h, and, in Olin, the letter h can be seen to translate as "surface related" or perhaps "region related".
  16. The name Mark is said to be derived from the name of the Roman God called Mars. However, Mars was not originally a Roman god. Rather the name Mars is generally believed to have originally been the name of an Etrucsan agricultural god that was adopted by the Romans and converted into a god of war. However, before the rise of Rome as a military state, the Etruscans were defeated by a Celtic tribe from Gaul named the Senones. After crushing the Etruscans, the Senones took over the lands of the Umbrians and settled in the town known as Sena Gallia in the region of Italy known as the Marche . The word March is said to be an Old English word that means "borderland". The Senones then laid seige to Rome, which lies to the south of the Marche, and it was that event that actually prompted the Roman city state to establish a standing militia. Thus the name Mars and, perhaps even more so, Mark both appear to be associated with the region that bordered Rome known as the Marche.
  17. The name Denmark derived from dane mark, where mark was the Germanic version of English word march . In the Olin language, dane translates as "land below related out of", which appears to accurately describe the Danish penninsula.
  18. Scholars have asserted that the name Cunobelinus means "hound of Belinus", where belinus was supposedly a Celtic god. Similarly scholars translate Cunomorus (the other name of Mark of Cornwall) as "hound of the sea". However, the cun, con, cyn and cuno appear possibly to be variants of the word cyn1, an Old English word for "king". If correct, Cunbelinus would mean "King Belinus" and Cunomorus would be a latinized form Cunomor, meaning "great king". Similarly the name Cunnedda would mean "good king". Like Cunomor, Cynfawr and Cynfarch would also mean "great king". Such epithets, in the opinion of this author, appear far more reasonable than "hound of...".
  19. The name Constantine appears to possibly be derived from cun stan tine, where cun was a Brythonic word meaning "king", stan translates as "stone", and tine effectively means "that within related out of". If that translation is correct, rather than being Latin for "constant", the name Constantine may actually have been a Celtic reference to a coronation stone such as the Coronation Stone found at Kingston on the Thames. Note that, per Geoffrey of Monmouth, Constantine, like his father before him, was crowned King of Britain before becoming a Roman emperor. Coronation stones similar to the one in Kingston on the Thames can be found in Scotland (the Stone of Scone), in Ireland (the Lia Fial) and in Sweden (Stones of Mora). Note also that such stones represented dynastic governance, a form of constancy.
  20. In Olin, salian can be seen to translate as "related changes before surface within below related", which appears to be a reference to the Roman conquest of Gaul from the British perspective.
  21. Julius Caesar was the first Roman to "conquer" Britain. He would eventually become the first emperor of Rome and then would be murdered. His adopted son, Octavius would rule in Rome with Caesar's friend, Mark Antony. Eventually, Octavius would have a falling out with Mark Antony, who would eventually be defeated in a sea battle and then commit suicide along with Cleopatra. Octavius would then assume the title Augustus, and become the first emperor of the Roman Empire. Eventually, Augustus would be succeeded by Tiberius, who would be succeeded by Caligula, who would be succeeded by Claudius. And it would be during the reign Caludius that Britain would largely come under Roman rule.
  22. In the first century AD, the Ordovices (note again dovic appears in the middle of the tribe's name) were a Celtic tribe that occupied the central part of Wales before the Roman invasion of Britain. To their North lived the Deceangli (compare eangli to Angle and English). When the Romans, under the rule of Claudius, invaded in 77 AD, the Ordovices fought the Romans, who were led by Agricola, and lost. The leader of the Ordovices, whose name was Caratacus (or Caractacus or possibly even Caractocus), was brought to Rome as a prisoner. Because of his eloquence before the Roman Senate, Caratacus was spared the fate that normally befell such prisoners (strangulation) and instead was granted freedom and allowed to live in Rome.
  23. According to Geoffrey of Monmouth, Constantine I was crowned king of Britain in 306 at York. Constantine then left Britain for Rome to become the Roman Emperor. Constantine placed a proconsul in charge of Britain during his absence. Octavius, who was supposedly a brother of Constantine I and was Duke of the Gewissi tribe (a Celtic tribe), eventually murdered the proconsul and established himself as king of Britain. In response to what Octavius did, Constantine sent three Roman legions to Britain under the command of his great-uncle, Trahern (who was also brother of King Coel). Octavius in turn assembled an army and defeated Trahern in a field outside Winchester. Trahern and his army fled. Later, however, the two armies met again in Westmoreland, where Octavius’ army was defeated. Octavius then fled to Norway. When Octavius eventually learned that Trahern had been assassinated, he returned to Britain to become king once more.
  24. Also according to Geoffrey of Monmouth, A man named Caradocus was Duke of Cornwall during the reign of Octavius. Sometime during Octavius' reign, Caradocus suggested to him that he should arrange for his daughter to marry the Roman emperor, Magnus Maximus. Caradocus then sent his son Mauricius (note that his name can be seen as a variant of Meuric or Morici) to Rome with the marriage offer. Conan Meriadoc, the king’s nephew, opposed the marriage. When Magnus Maximus arrived at Southhampton for the marriage, Conan attacked him and almost killed him. Fortunately for Magnus Maximus, Caradocus arrived to save the day. Octavius then abdicated the British throne, which then went to Maximus (aka Maximianus).
  25. Five years later, Maximus left the land to wage war in Gaul, at which time he appointed Caradocus king in his absence. Conan Meriadoc was then given lands in Brittany called Armorica (Perhaps a form of ap meuric a, Ar mori ca).
  26. The name Caradoc and the name Meriadoc share the doc root. Caradoc was given “care of the homelands” while Meriadoc was given the land by/of the sea (mori). (Note also the similarity between the words doc, duke and dux.) In Olin, doc can be translated as "land after change", suggesting possibly that the title refers to land acquired through inheritance.
  27. From sources deemed more relaible than Geoffery of Monmouth, Constantine I left Britain for Trier (in Roman Gaul). In the winter of 306-7, he fought and defeated the Franks in a battle in what is now Germany. During the battle, he managed to capture two Frankish kings, one named Ascaric (note that his name ends in aric) and another named Merogaisus (where the name Merog is apparent).
  28. During Constantine's "reign", the Western Roman empire was for a time divided between him and Maxentius (compare to the division of the lands between Caradoc and Meriadoc). In fact, Maxentius first rebelled against Constantine in the winter of 306 AD while Constantine was away in Trier fighting the Franks. It would be in defeating Maxentius that Constantine would finally rule over all of the Roman Empire.
  29. The father of Maxentius, Maximian, would, like his son, also rebel against Constantine. Eventually Maxentius was forced to flee to Marseilles (which was known as Massilia). He was ultimately handed over to Constantine and forced to kill himself.
  30. Maximian's first name was Marcus (note the name Marc is similar to Meurig). During the end of the third century, he would be co-emperor of the Roman Empire with Diocletian. He and Diocletian would in fact be compared to Jupiter (Diocletian) and Hercules (Maximian). Maximian would eventually establish his residence in Trier (recall that Constantine left Britain for Trier).
  31. Maximian supposedly appointed Marcus Aurelius Mausaeus Carausius to command the Roman fleet in the English Channel. The Roman fleet was supposedly responsible for defending Armorica and the Belgian coasts from Frankish and Saxon pirates. Eventually, however, Carausius was accused of piracy himself and condemned to death by Maximian. But Carausius would instead declare himself emperor of Britain and northern Gaul. Ultimately, he amassed a huge fleet and controlled four Roman legions, three that were stationed in Britain and one in Gaul. Carausius appeared to have ruled over all of Roman Britain until he was assassinated during the rule of Constantius Chloris, Constantine I's father.
  32. The name Cara-usius appears to be the same as Caraducius or Caradoc with an -ius suffix.
  33. Carausius was from a Belgic tribe, the Menapii. The Menapii and their neighbors, the Morini, were fiercely hostile to the Romans. The Menapii and Morini, in fact, were the tribes led by Ambiorix during his unsuccessful opposition to Julius Caesar in the first century BC.
  34. A Muiredaig (aka Meriadoc) Tirech was said to be a High King of Ireland sometime during the fourth century. The name Tirech appears to be a conjunction of Tir, referring to the Irish county of Tir Eoghain, and rech, being a variant of rex.
  35. A Muirchertach mac Muiredaig was said to be a High King of Ireland during the sixth century. The name Muirchertach appears to be a combination of Meurig and doc. He was said to be the son of Eogan, where Eogan was the second king of the the Irish kingdom of Tir Eoghain. He is also referred to as Muirchertach mac Ercae, where Ercae possibly is a form of Eric (although legend suggests that Ercae was his mother's name, which is supported by the fact that ae in Olin can be translated as "in front out of" or "predecessor out of", which can be seen as meaning "mother of").
  36. A Muiredach Bolgrach was said to be a High King of Ireland sometime between the fifth and ninth century BC(!). He was supposedly killed and succeeded by Enna Derg. Note that rach appears likely to be a form of rex and that derg also appears likely to be a form of d-eric/doric, etc. The name Bolgrach would therefore appear to mean "king of the Bolg", referring possibly to the Fir Bolg.
  37. Constantine III was a Roman general in Britain who, in 405 or 406 AD, declared himself to be the Western Roman Emperor. He apparently left Britain with the remaining Roman forces there and took them to Spain, where they defeated the cousins of Roman Emperor Theodosius. One of the cousins was named Verianus (compare to the king named Verica in Julius Caesar's account). Verianus managed to escape and fled to Constantinople.
  38. It has been claimed that Constantine III married the daughter of Llancelod (Lancelot).
  39. The Romans finally left Britain around 410 AD. After they left, the remnants of the Romano-Britons established successor states in what is now Wales. And it is at this time that a man known as Caradoc Vreichvras is said to have established a kingdom in Gwent. He would eventually be succeeded by Tewdrig. Tewdrig (a.k.a. Theodoric, which is said to mean "king of the people" ), King of South Wales, eventually abdicated his thrown, leaving it to his son Meurig (a.k.a. Marwig a.k.a. Meuric). Meurig then had a son named Athrwys, who some scholars maintain was the Welsh king who drove out the Anglo-Saxons and who we know today as King Arthur. Athrwys (where wys can be seen to be related to wig, vis, vic, etc.) would go on to have a son named Morgan who would rule over the Welsh region known as Morganwg (note that wg appears related to wig, vis, vic, etc. and also that Morg can easily be seen to be a variant of Meurig.).
  40. According to the legend of King Arthur, Arthur's father was named Uther Pendragon. Most academicians decompose the name Pendragon into pen dragon and translate it as "chief dragon" and suggest the epithet means "chief warrior". But that is actually only one of perhaps several possible meanings for the name. For example, the name Uther in Olin can be seen to translate as "origin that heat (out of action)". As so translated, it appears, in fact, to be a word meaning father, parent or ancestor. As for Pendragon, instead of pen dragon, the word can also be seen to break as pend ragon. Now pend appears to be related to our word appendage. In Olin pend translates as "stalk out of related body", which could easily refer to an arm, a leg or a finger. Next we turn to ragon (as seen in Aragon) and see that it can be seen to translate as "movement in front, great change after related", which can be interpreted several different ways. One way would be to recognize that "movement in front" refers to warfare, so the word can be seen to mean "great warrior" (note that rag can also be seen to be related to ric and that drag can be seen to relate to dric and doric). However, another possible interpretation is that "front movement great change after related" simple means "strong". This may be important in that the name Vreichvras, the last name of Welsh king known as Caradoc, is usually translated as "strong arm". In other words, the name Uther Pendragon can be seen to translate as "ancestor strong arm", where "strong arm" would appear to be a referrence to Caradoc Vreichvras.
  41. Another possible interpretation of the name pendragon is that "stalk out of related body, movement in front, great change after related" refers to jousting. If correct, the name uther ("origin that heat out of movement") perhaps means "inventor". Thus, uther pendragon possibly means "inventor of jousting".
  42. Also in the fifth century AD, one finds the founder of the Merovingian dynasty known as Merovech or Merovic (note that the v and r are actually fairly interchangeable in both form and meaning, and that vic appears in our English word victory as well as the Roman word victrix). Merovech's father was said to be Clodio. He was leader of the Salian Franks, who some scholars suggest came from the Salland, a Dutch province near the sea (French mer ) where flows the river Merwede , the river Vecht and the Vecht's tributary, the Regge.
  43. Marcomer, who was a Frankish leader in the late fourth century who invaded Belgia and Germania, was said to be the father of Faramund (or Pharamond), who was said to be the father of Clodio, who was said to be the father of Merovich. (Note the name Marcomer can be seen as Marc o mer or Meurig o mer).
  44. Both the Franks and the Romans believed that they were descendents of Trojans.
  45. Merovech would become the father of Childeric, and Childeric would become the father of Clovis, also known as Chlodovech (Note that clovis can easily be seen as dovis or dovic or dovix or doric or dorix). Clovis would marry the sister of Theodoric the Great, ruler of the Ostrogoth and king of Italy.
  46. With the help of the Alvernians (aka the Auvergne or Arverni), Clovis defeated the Visigoth. He then established his capital in Paris (compare aris to oris). His decendents would later assume the name Louis (which derived from lovis, which derived from clovis). His name would also find its way into Germany, where the name Chlodovech (again compare to Claudius) would (in the same way that cLouis lost it's initial c) evolve into lodovech or lodovic and then eventually into Ludwig. (It is also worth noting here that a poorly formed s can easily be misread as a g!)
  47. At this point, it is worth taking a look at the Gaulish tribe known as the Arverni (aka Alverni aka Auvergne), the tribe that helped Clovis defeat the Visigoth. Exactly who were the Arverni or Auvergne? Despite all the dramatic movement of tribes throughout that age, they just happen to be the exact same tribe that was led by Vercingetorix over 500 years earlier.
  48. The name Vercingetorix appears to break fairly cleanly into Vercin-g-etorix, where etorix is the same, familiar dorics/dovic/dovech suffix, with the et becoming a d or vice versa. We can also see that the name Auvergne can be recast as au-vergn-e, where vergn and vercin can hopefully be recognized to be the exact same word. In fact, it isn't hard to also see that the two words appear to possibly even be homonyms if not synonyms of an English word: virgin (meaning "pure" or "chaste"). The main city of the Auvergne was called Riom, which the Romans called Ricomagnus (note the ric prefix and that Riom appears to be a reduction of Ricomagnus and prehaps even a homonym of Rome).
  49. The name Vercingetorix can also be seen as a combination of ver (referring to the river Ver in Britain), cinge (a form of king) and the suffix torix (also meaning "king").
  50. While the name Meurig and Mark (as well as names like Maurice and Irish Murrough) are male names, there also appear to be feminine counterparts to the names. Throughout Europe, from Finland to Spain, one finds names like Maarika, Marrja, Mareike, Marcia, Marge, Merche, etc. Even in Japan, one will find the name Mariko and Moriko.
  51. The name Maria appears likely to be similarly derived from Marcia or Marrja and to mean "mother of a great king" rather than simply "mother".
  52. There is mention of a Caradog of Vannes. Interestingly, the coastal town of Vannes (in Brittany) is known as Gwened in Breton, which appears to be named after Gwynedd, Wales (or vice versa).
  53. Vannes sits up river from the Gulf de Morbihan. Morbihan is supposed to be Breton for “little sea”. The Wikipedia article on the gulf compares the name to Welsh y mor bychan.
  54. The area around Vannes is filled with megalithic monuments. Similarly, North of Gwynedd lies the island of Anglessey (aka Ynys Mon), where one also finds megalithic monuments.
  55. Vannes was the home of the Veneti, a seafaring Celtic tribe that was defeated by Caesar. In Olin, the name Veneti translates as "movement out of related out of those/that within", which appears to suggest they were related to seafaring traders or pirates.
  56. The Venedoti were a tribe in the region that would become Gwynedd, Wales. They were said to be ruled by Cunedda. It is believed that vened, gwynedd and cunedd are all derived from the same name/word. In Olin venedoti translates as "movement out of related out of land above (or after) that within".
  57. Cunedda was said to be descended from Padarn Beisrudd. While some believe Padarn Beisrudd may have been a Roman soldier who was put in charge of Votadini troops in the fourth century AD, there was also a High King of Ireland named Aed Ruad, son of Badarn. Aed Ruad is said to have ruled Ireland sometime between 300 and 800 BC. He supposedly died by drowning in a waterfall named Eas Ruaid.
  58. After Aed Rudd died, his daughter, Macha, waged war against Aed's cousins. In Irish Mythology, a warrior woman/goddess named Macha is sometimes referred to as the sister of Morrigan. County Armagh, Ireland is said to be named after the woman/goddess, who is said to be burried there. Note that in Olin ar can be translated as either "front movement" (referring to combat) or "below movement" (referring to burrial). Note also that macha in Olin can be translated as "movement related in fron, change heat below" (which appears to refer to warfare).
  59. The name Ludwig is said to mean "famous warrier" while the name Marwig is said to mean "famed fighter". Chlodovech is translated as "glorious fighter". Place names in Wales ending is wys and wg frequently are related to old forts. In England, in the region that was known as Mercia (note that merc appears likely to be a derivative form or Meurig), one finds the city of Warwick (wick is also clearly a form of vic/ric), which began as fortifications built to fight off the Vikings (again note the vik in viking). Thus, there appears to have been a subtle difference in the meaning of vic and ric, where vic meant "fighter" and ric meant "king". Note that one often came to rule through conquest (perhaps cun quest?).
  60. The female name Doris (which appears possibly to be related to doric or dovic) is a very familiar name in Greek. It is in fact the name of the region in Greece where the Dorians lived, and, consequently, many Greek names end with -doris.
  61. The name Eric means "ruler". In Olin, Eric translates as "out of movement within change", which appears to describe invasion.
  62. The name Eric appears to possibly show up in Greek mythology in a rather unexpected place: in the name Herakles (where herak, as well as herc in the Roman name, are likely derivatives).
  63. The name Eric shows up in another remarkable place. The Maori name for "chief" is ariki. And the Polynesian Maori (mor-i) are a sea people famed for traveling great distances.
  64. Like Eric, the name Meurig also shows up in a rather interesting place name as well: America (i.e., a-meric-a). Again one must ask whether this is the result of pure coincidence. The name America first appeared on a rather remarkable map by the German cartographer Martin Waldseemuller (whose last name, interestingly, can be seen to be "world sea muller", where mull in Olin translates as "movement related location/origin flat surface" and can be seen to mean "map making"). The name America was attributed to an Italian named Amerigo Vespucci, although some claim the land was actually named after someone from Wales whose last name, Amerike, evolved from ap Meurig, meaning "(descendent) of Meurig". But even if the Welsh attribution is incorrect, the name Amerigo certainly appears to be firmly rooted in the meurig, merovich, marwig tradition nevertheless.
  65. And what of this Roman god named Mercury, who Julius Caesar indicated was the most popular god in Gaul and Britain? Could the merc in Mercury be the origin of Meurig and Morevech? Or could this British/Gaulish Mercury perhaps merely be the offspring of an even older Meurig or Merovech?
  66. The name Morovic or Merovic could also possibly be seen to translate as "invader(s) from the sea".
  67. Morrigan is a name from Irish Mythology. It can be translated as mor riggan, meaning "great queen". Note that rig is a variant of ric/rix/rex. Thus morrig or meurig appears likely to be Irish for "great king". Note also that in Olin an translates as "in front related" or "before related", which can be seen to mean "mother".
  68. One person who played an important role in the events of the fifth century is known as Vortigern. On the Pillar of Eliseg (where eliseg translates in Olin as "out oif surface within, related changes out of great change"), his name is given as Guorthigern. In Olin, guorthigern translates as "great change origin after movement that heat within, great change out of movement related", which appears possibly to describe the invasion of Saxons and Angles into England at that time and the conflict that resulted.
  69. The tribal name Votadini derives from the same root as the name Edinburg. Edinburg was called Dun Eiddean or Din Eidyn. The word dun means “fort”, so Dun Eidyn means “Fort Eidyn” or perhaps “Aidan’s fort” or “Edwin’s fort”. Recognizing that the adin within Votadini then is likely the name of person or place, we must ask what vot refers to. One possibility is that it evolved from fort (i.e., fort, vort, vot) or they shared a common etymological root (i.e., ver vert fert fort, ver vert vort vot) both Celtic ver and French fort means "strong". It is also possible that the name Eidyn derived from edd dun, meaning “good fort” or Aed dun, meaning “Ed’s fort”. Over time, as the meaning of Eidyn was forgotten, people added the prefix “fort” to the name, not realizing that the prefix was redundant.

As I said earlier, I am, despite my best efforts, unable to answer the questions raised by these amazing tidbits. I am particularly amazed by the foreign names like Moriko, ariki and Maori. Could they simply be coincidences? And is it possible that the name Mark was derived from Meuric? Could the Franks actually have originated from England, perhaps members of an older Belgae tribe that crossed back into Belgium?

Long ago, histories were typically written, not to educate those living in the future of the events that were taking place at the time the histories were written, but rather to inform those living in that same age of events long forgotten from their own common past. Looking at the list of “facts” I have compiled above, I cannot help but feel that the histories and folklore passed down to us were often derived from even older manuscripts perhaps written in tongues the authors of the histories did not fully comprehend themselves. One must also recognize that many of such histories were written, not by independent academicians motivated solely by a sincere desire to preserve historical truths, but rather were produced under the direction and censorship of rulers bent on justifying and preserving their own rule.

Sadly, what is at stake here is not merely the trustworthiness of the documents that were passed down to us but also the trustworthiness of modern scholarship. This is not to say that modern scholarship in this area is completely unsound as some have argued; but one must also continue to be skeptical of confidently reiterated “facts”. I remain hopeful, however, that the truth is out there concerning the roughly 800 year period spanning the reign of Brennus and the reign of Clovis.

If you believe I am in error or am unaware of an important fact, I hope that you will take the time to share with me what you know.

1 Some assert that cyning means "king"; however, cyning actually means "belonging to the king".